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Supplementing chemotherapy and radiotherapy with selenium has shown benefits against various cancers. This approach alleviates side effects and improves the quality of life in patients. Selenium levels in patients correlate with cancer presence, serving as diagnostic markers to track treatment efficiency. This review surveys selenium-based literature, focusing on hematological malignancies, highlighting selenium’s significant impact on different cancers, and discussing the mechanisms and signaling pathways regulated by selenium.

Introduction

Cancer remains a global health challenge, with colorectal cancer (CRC) being particularly prevalent. Early detection and aggressive treatment improve prognosis, while natural dietary agents like selenium show promise in cancer prevention and treatment. Selenium, found in plants and essential for health, demonstrates strong anticancer activity, reducing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.

Anticancer Activity of Selenium

Initial studies revealed selenium’s ability to inhibit cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis. Selenium has shown effectiveness against various cancers, including colon, breast, prostate, and liver cancers. Its antioxidant properties contribute significantly to these effects.

Mechanisms of Action

Selenium interacts with molecular targets and signaling pathways, modulating cell functions like proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It also enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, reducing associated side effects.

Clinical Observations

Clinical studies indicate that selenium improves the quality of life and reduces chemotherapy side effects in cancer patients. It enhances the anticancer effects of conventional therapies, showing potential as a supplementary treatment.

Conclusions

Selenium offers promising potential for cancer prevention and treatment. Further controlled clinical trials are needed to explore its full therapeutic potential, aiming to improve the efficacy of standard cancer treatments while minimizing toxicity.

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